Types Of Gynecological Cancers Commonly Treated Through Surgery In India

Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among Indian women, with a high mortality rate due to late-stage diagnosis. Gynecological cancers, which originate in various parts of a woman's reproductive system, demand attention and timely intervention. In India, these cancers are a significant health concern, but with awareness, preventive measures, and advancements in treatment, there's hope for better outcomes.

Understanding Gynecological Cancers

Gynecological cancers encompass a range of malignancies affecting the reproductive organs. These include cancers of the cervix, ovaries, uterus, vagina, vulva, and gestational trophoblastic tumors. While some types are more prevalent, all require early detection and appropriate treatment for the best prognosis.

Common Gynecological Cancers in India

In India, several types of gynecological cancers affect women, posing significant health challenges. The most common types include:

Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer is the leading gynecological cancer in India. It affects the cells of the cervix (the lower part of the uterus). Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a primary cause, and risk factors include early marriage, multiple childbirths, poor genital hygiene, and lack of regular screenings.

Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian cancer is the third most common gynecological cancer in Indian women. It originates in the ovaries and often presents late, making treatment challenging. Risk factors include genetics, hormonal factors, and lifestyle choices.

Endometrial Cancer

Endometrial cancer, also known as uterine cancer, develops in the lining of the uterus. Symptoms include abnormal vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain, and pain during sex. Hormonal factors, obesity, and genetics contribute to its incidence.

Vaginal Cancer

Vaginal cancer is relatively rare but affects women over 5It originates in the tissues of the vagina and is often associated with HPV infection. Symptoms include abnormal bleeding, discharge, and pelvic pain.

Vulvar Cancer

Vulvar cancer affects the external genitalia and is more common in older women. It presents with symptoms like itching, burning, sores, or ulcers on the vulva. HPV infection, smoking, and chronic skin conditions are risk factors.

Gestational Trophoblastic Tumors

These tumors arise from abnormal growth of cells in the placenta during pregnancy. While rare, they pose risks to maternal health if left untreated.

Treatment Options in India

Laparoscopic Surgery

This minimally invasive technique involves making small incisions in the abdomen through which specialized surgical instruments and a camera are inserted. Surgeons perform intricate procedures with enhanced visualization, leading to smaller scars, reduced pain, and quicker post-operative recovery. Laparoscopic surgery is commonly employed in procedures such as hysterectomy (removal of the uterus), oophorectomy (removal of ovaries), and lymph node dissection.

Robotic-Assisted Surgery

Robotic surgery takes laparoscopy to the next level by utilizing advanced robotic systems controlled by surgeons. These systems offer greater dexterity, precision, and 3D visualization, allowing surgeons to perform complex procedures with enhanced accuracy. Robotic-assisted surgeries are particularly beneficial for intricate procedures requiring fine manipulation, such as nerve-sparing surgeries and lymphadenectomies.

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy involves the use of high-energy radiation beams to target and destroy cancer cells. It is often employed as part of the treatment regimen for gynecological cancers, either as a primary treatment modality or in conjunction with surgery and chemotherapy. Radiation therapy may be delivered externally (external beam radiation) or internally (brachytherapy), depending on the specific cancer type and stage.


Chemotherapy utilizes powerful drugs to kill cancer cells or inhibit their growth and spread. It is commonly administered either intravenously or orally and is often used as adjuvant therapy following surgery to eliminate residual cancer cells or as primary treatment for advanced or metastatic disease. Chemotherapy regimens are tailored to the individual patient and may involve single or combination drug therapies.

Hormone Therapy

Hormone therapy targets hormone-sensitive gynecological cancers, such as certain types of ovarian and endometrial cancers. By blocking or suppressing hormone receptors, hormone therapy aims to inhibit cancer cell growth and proliferation. Hormone therapy may be administered orally or through injections and is often used in combination with other treatment modalities.

Targeted Therapies

Targeted therapies are precision medicine approaches that specifically target cancer cells or their signaling pathways while sparing healthy cells. These therapies may involve monoclonal antibodies, small molecule inhibitors, or immunotherapies designed to enhance the body's immune response against cancer cells. Targeted therapies offer promising avenues for personalized treatment and improved outcomes in gynecological cancers.

Gynecological Cancer Care Scope in India

In India, navigating challenges in preventive care, diagnosis, and treatment accessibility is crucial, particularly in rural regions. Limited awareness, inadequate screening facilities, and socioeconomic factors impede early detection and intervention efforts. However, opportunities for improvement exist through education, expanded screening programs, and enhanced vaccine accessibility.

Embracing Technological Advancements

Robotic-assisted surgeries present a beacon of hope in the landscape of gynecological cancer treatment. These cutting-edge techniques offer promising prospects for improved outcomes by reducing post-operative complications, minimizing pain, and shortening hospital stays. Such advancements benefit patients across diverse demographics, promising a brighter future in cancer care.

Building Resilience Against Gynecological Cancers

Preventive measures and heightened awareness play pivotal roles in the battle against gynecological cancers. Encouraging regular screenings, promoting HPV vaccination, fostering healthy lifestyles, and offering genetic counseling for high-risk individuals are essential strategies. Empowering women, especially in rural areas, with knowledge can facilitate timely medical intervention and support, fostering resilience against these formidable diseases.

Thangam Robotics revolutionizes gynaecology cancer surgery in india by offering cutting-edge robotic-assisted surgeries. With enhanced precision and quicker recovery times, our innovative solutions ensure optimal outcomes for patients battling cervical, ovarian, uterine, vaginal, vulvar cancers, and gestational trophoblastic tumors.

Contact us today to know how Thangam Robotics can transform your journey towards wellness.